Heat Removal

“New Frontier in the Efficiency Quest: Cutting Heat Losses”

NY Times

“Heat Exchangers: The Definitive Guide”



“Only about 14%–30% of the energy from the fuel you put in a conventional vehicle is used to move it down the road, depending on the drive cycle. The rest of the energy is lost to engine and driveline inefficiencies or used to power accessories.”

US Dept. of Energy

“…additional requirements for exhaust after treatment systems and emissions systems resulting in a weight increase of about 400 lbs.; and the weight of the cooling system increased by almost 200 lbs.”

US Dept. of Energy (Page 6)

“Cooling system problems are believed to cause about 40 percent of unanticipated downtime. Once problems from overheating start, they spread throughout the engine.”

Heavy Duty Trucking Magazine/truckinginfo.com


“… electric motors, and the systems they drive, are the largest single consumer of electrical power. In aggregate, they use twice as much energy as lighting applications, which is the next largest user, … In fact, electric motors and the systems they drive account for approximately 50 percent of total global energy consumption.”

IHS Inc.

“Air has a low specific heat, low density, and low conductivity. These make it a poor heat transfer fluid and cause a number of design challenges.”

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Page 28)

“Higher temperatures shorten motor life. For every 10°C rise in operating temperature, the insulation life is reduced by half.”

US Dept. of Energy

“It has been concluded that more than 55% of the insulating failures are caused by overheating.”

Bright Hub Engineering


“Electric vehicles are outstripping the supply of charging stations.”


“We’ve been on a modernization vacation. The culture of the Army is changing,” Lt. Gen. Paul Ostrowski, principal military deputy to the assistant secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics and technology.


“What will be the biggest problem for electric vehicle drivers? Not enough charging stations.”


“When power goes out in supermarkets, you’re talking thousands and thousands of dollars. Once it goes out over 24 hours, you start throwing your stock out, such as ice creams and frozen stuff.”

Australian Broadcasting Corporation

Future Applications


“Bearing failures account for nearly two-thirds of all motor failures. If not detected in time, the failing bearing can cause overheating and damage insulation, or can fail drastically and do irreparable mechanical damage to the motor.”

US Dept. of Energy


“As mobile turbine technology has developed and become available, utilities have turned to them rapidly …. Since 2011, turbine share has grown rapidly, from zero in 2010 to a 35% share of the 100-MW+ deal space in 2013. Approximately 20% of all fast-track power deals since 2012 have been for gas turbines.”

Power Magazine